This study analyzes the parliamentary diplomacy of major countries in the world against the backdrop of intensifying rivalry for global dominance, geopolitical instability, as well as multifaceted security challenges in which technology, economics, diplomacy, security, and values are intricately intertwined, while drawing implications for Korean parliamentary diplomacy. In the midst of shifting dynamics in the global order, the world is confronted with significant challenges in reinforcing economic security, boosting competitiveness in technological innovation, as well as in establishing policies and building global partnerships to address key international concerns, such as climate change and the creation of norms for new and evolving technologies.
Domestically, South Korea is actively engaged in crafting pivotal legislation, including the Semiconductor Act, it is focusing on building favorable external conditions conducive to its national interests and enhancing cooperation with similarly positioned countries. Current global agendas such as economic security, carbon neutrality, and AI norms, are emerging as central themes in global multilateral discussions, reflecting the dynamic nature of new challenges on the world stage. Globally, parliaments are amplifying their legislative efforts to protect national security and interests amidst these shifts, concurrently broadening their diplomatic outreach to strengthen international communication and collaboration. As the world order undergoes significant transformation, the discourse and demand for effective parliamentary diplomacy are intensifying. This trend is also evident domestically, challenging the conventional notion that diplomacy is predominantly an executive domain.
Within the context of the burgeoning discussion around the relevance and necessity of parliamentary diplomacy in Korea, this study was undertaken with two primary research goals. The first objective is to propose a strategic direction and specific tasks for Korean parliamentary diplomacy. To achieve this, we conducted an in-depth analysis of how parliamentary diplomacy is conceptualized and implemented by legislatures in key countries and regions globally. Based on this, we drew insights and implications for the advancement of Korean parliamentary diplomacy, informed by a comparative analysis of international examples of parliamentary diplomacy. The second goal is to suggest how Korean parliamentary diplomacy can effectively engage with major global countries and regions.
This study does not aim to provide a theoretical or analytical approach to parliamentary diplomacy, but rather to provide basic informations that can be of practical help to Korea's parliamentary diplomacy.
The focus is on providing a substantial informational basis on various models of global parliamentary diplomacy, aimed at enhancing comprehension of major international parliamentary systems. The contents of this study were compiled by nationally recognized experts in the field of parliamentary diplomacy, alongside regional specialists, to augment understanding of the political systems in key countries and regions. This knowledge base is instrumental in providing valuable insights for the effective execution of Korean parliamentary diplomacy, as well as offering recommendations on the directions and challenges of Korean parliamentary diplomacy.