The heightened emphasis on innovation, driven by global competitiveness, the advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and governmental strategies centered on innovative growth, has elicited a growing interest in the development of diagnostic indicators that can assess the provision of learning support for employees and college students. This study endeavors to create such indicators, with a focus on the critical role of learning in enhancing individual innovation capabilities, and to continuously monitor governmental policies aimed at improving learning support.
This study followed a step-by-step approach, proceeding in a cyclical and non-linear manner.
Initially, to conceptualize learning that can enhance individuals' innovation capabilities, modes of learning that foster such capabilities were identified through the examination of expert consultation outcomes and a thorough review of relevant literature. This study considers learning that encourages experimentation through trial-and-error methods as being paramount in fostering individuals' innovation capabilities. This study posits that a focus on informal learning, self-directed learning, experiential learning, learning through mistakes, and collaborative learning is crucial in enhancing the innovation capabilities of both employees and college students.
Following this, this study conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to identify the key determinants of innovation capability and developed a conceptual framework for learning support. It differentiated the factors affecting learning for innovation into personal characteristics, such as resilience, and environmental elements, such as a culture that embraces learning through failure and experimentation. The researchers utilized a combination of literature review and brainstorming to arrive at a set of learning enablers and disablers that impact the development of innovation capabilities.
The objective of this study was to design learning support indicators and a classification system. The indicators were derived from the results of research meetings and a review of prior studies, with the aim of aligning them with statistical data and indicators collected by government agencies, research institutes, and public organizations. The study developed a framework that categorizes indicators into environmental and personal factors, in accordance with the literature review for this study and based on Amabile's (1988) componential model of organizational innovation. The environmental dimension was further divided into system and culture sub-dimensions, while the personal dimension was split into cognitive and non-cognitive competencies. The study synthesized influencing factors from relevant theories, models, and previous studies and utilized it as a guide in creating the learning support components and indicators.
The study concluded with the administration of two Delphi surveys. These surveys sought to validate learning support indicators, framework, and learning modes aimed at enhancing innovation capabilities. To this end, 20 experts participated in the validation process. The initial Delphi survey was based on a draft of the learning support indicators, which were designed for both employees and college students. Based on the feedback received from the first survey, the research team made revisions to the learning modes, indicator classification system, and the names and definitions of the indicators. Subsequently, a second Delphi survey was conducted, utilizing the revised learning support indicators. The results of this survey were analyzed and used to finalize the learning modes, learning support indicators, and the classification system. The final version of the indicators comprised a total of 25 indicators, with separate sets for employees and college students.